When is it appropriate for a white person to use Spanish with Latinxs?

In my last post, I examined the raciolinguistic underpinnings of discussions of the bilingualism of vice-presidential candidate Tim Kaine. I explored the double standard that exists in US society where the bilingualism of white people is celebrated in ways that it is not for Latinxs. I was also not arguing that Tim Kaine should never use Spanish. However, just because a white person like Tim Kaine knows Spanish doesn’t mean that they should feel entitled to use it with any Latinx that they meet. This begs the question, when is it appropriate for a white person to use Spanish with Latinxs in the United States

If you a white person who finds this question offensive I challenge you to reflect on what it is that you find offensive. The question does not imply that the use of Spanish by white people with Latinxs is never appropriate. It simply implies that there are times when it might not be appropriate. To feel offended at the thought that you might need to adapt your language choices to accommodate Latinxs is a product of the logic of white supremacy that is premised on people of color having to adapt their behavior to accommodate white people with white people never having to adapt their behavior to accommodate people of color.

In the spirit of challenging this logic of white supremacy, below I lay out 5 guidelines for white people who speak Spanish to consider when deciding when it may or may not be appropriate for them to use Spanish with Latinxs in the US. It is possible that some of these guidelines may also be helpful to non-Latinxs people of color who speak Spanish in the US. However, the intersection of bilingualism and whiteness is the focus of my response here.

  1. Mock Spanish is not Spanish. The first point to consider is whether you actually have proficiency in Spanish. I don’t mean that your Spanish has to be perfect—nobody speaks any language perfectly. What I mean is whether you have adequate proficiency to respectfully engage in social interactions. If your Spanish abilities end at the ability to sprinkle words such as “no problemo,” “papi,” or “comprende” you are not really using Spanish but Mock Spanish that is used to denigrate Latinxs. The general rule of thumb here is if you have never actually studied Spanish and/or had any authentic opportunities to engage with Spanish speakers and only know a few simple words then you are probably using Mock Spanish and should stop immediately.
  2. Not all Latinxs speak Spanish. This fact is not surprising considering that many Latinxs currently residing in the United States can trace their ancestry on the lands currently known as the United States to before it was the United States. Just as you wouldn’t assume that somebody whose great-grandparents immigrated from Italy speaks Italian you should not assume that all Latinxs living in the United States speak Spanish. To use Spanish with a Latinx who doesn’t speak Spanish might be offensive to them in that it associates them with a language that they and their family may not have spoken for generations. Alternatively, it is possible that a Latinx who doesn’t speak Spanish is embarrassed by their lack of Spanish proficiency and resents being reminded of this. The general rule of thumb should be to use English as the default language when engaging with Latinxs living in the US unless you receive indication that they speak Spanish.
  3. Not all Latinxs who speak Spanish want to use Spanish with white people. Of course even if you confirm that a Latinx you encounter in the US does speak Spanish it doesn’t necessarily mean that they want to use Spanish with you. There are many reasons why this might be the case. For one, unlike with the bilingualism of white people, the bilingualism of Latinxs is often denigrated in US society. This can lead to feelings of shame about one’s bilingualism that may make Latinxs reluctant to use it outside of familial contexts. In a similar vein, a Latinx who speaks English as a second language may have insecurities about their English exacerbated when a white person tries to use Spanish with them in ways that may imply that their English isn’t good enough. In addition, both US and non-US born Latinxs may prefer to use Spanish as a way of connecting with others in the Latinx community and may simply not want to use it with white people. The general rule of thumb should be to follow the lead of the Latinxs you encounter. If they indicate a willingness to engage with you in Spanish go for it. If they do not give any indication of a desire to engage with you in Spanish then continue using English.
  4. Don’t expect Latinxs to be your Spanish teacher. It can be disappointing to want to practice your Spanish with Latinx people you encounter and have them either explicitly or implicitly refuse to engage with you in Spanish. But disappointment is not the same as oppression. On the other hand, feeling entitled to free labor from Latinxs is oppression that continues in the long history of exploitation of the knowledge of people of color for the benefit of white people. If you are truly interested in practicing your Spanish join a local Spanish conversation group, take a class, watch the Spanish media or volunteer in a Spanish-speaking community. The general rule of thumb should be to receive consent from a Latinx before practicing your Spanish with them and when possible compensating them for their time and effort either monetarily or in some other way. They are doing you a huge service and you should give them some token of your appreciation.
  5. Being bilingual doesn’t automatically make you an ally to the Latinx community. A discussion of the bilingualism of white people should not occur outside of a discussion of the broader policy agenda that you stand for. Knowing Spanish does not give you an automatic pass. You must also actively work as allies in the struggle to improve the lives of the Latinx community. This means listening to what Latinx people are saying—both in Spanish and English—about the issues that impact our community and supporting us in confronting these issues. If you are using your bilingualism more in the service of your own professional goals than the empowerment of the Latinx community you are not being an ally. You are maintaining white supremacy.

In a society where most of the population is monolingual English speaking, anybody who is bilingual, regardless of what their racial background, should be proud of this accomplishment. However, in a society that has historically and continues to be shaped by structural racism, white Spanish-speakers must be willing to directly confront the privileges afforded to you as a product of a white supremacist society. One way of doing this is for you to become comfortable with allowing Latinxs in your lives to dictate the terms and language of your interactions.

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32 thoughts on “When is it appropriate for a white person to use Spanish with Latinxs?

  1. As a “white bilingual” I find this very powerful and a must read for all of “us.”
    Using our bilingualism to forge alliances as opposed to increasing our human capital.
    Critically-framed and social justice oriented two-way dual language programs, as they become ideologically gentrified by “us”, also have great potential be generative spaces that foment critical consciousness, compassion, and alliances (in Spanish or English)!
    Thanks for getting this out there!

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    1. First of all, we are not Latinxs, we are Latinos. Latin for both sexes is used. I am a Latina, the majority of Latinos hate that word – so do not I repeat myself as a Latina born in South America – don’t ever ever call me a Latinx super insulting. Second, please do not list to this white boy, he has no clue. It is ok to try to speak to us in our language – it is a sign of respect and we do not mind ever teaching you a word or two. I find this man to be a total ignorant idiot of our culture. So please, do not I repeat myself do not follow these ridiculous rules. You welcome. Good thing, he has not met a Latina like me – or else I would use some heavy duty Spanish on him – yeah don’t get on the wrong side of a Latina – we are like fire.

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      1. I’m not even sure what your comment is about or if I am the “white boy” who “has no clue” and is “ignorant of our culture.” For the record, my mother is from Puerto Rico and my father was South American like you (from Ecuador to be exact). I also use “heavy duty Spanish” with LatinXs all the time. But none of that was the point of my post. I also find it interesting that you feel so offended by the term Latinx but have no problem reproducing the stereotype of the fiery Latina. But to each their own I suppose.

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  2. Nelson, this is helpful. I would love to read more about the other language skills: listening, reading, writing, and pragmatics. Listening, most obviously. When is it appropriate for a White person proficient on Spanish to listen to one or more Latinxs having a conversation in Spanish without identifying themselves as someone who can understand what’s being said? There’s a kind of eavesdropping, or linguistic voyeurism, that takes place in that scenario, which gives power of access, information, and the element of surprise to the White multilingual. Are there rules of the road for White Spanish listeners, as well as speakers?

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    1. That’s a good question. I would say that nobody should ever feel like they have to hide bilingual proficiency. If you are part of a conversation where people begin to engage in Spanish and you understand I see no reason why you shouldn’t indicate that you understand. If it is a random conversation that others are having in a cafe or another venue you happen to be at then I don’t think there is a need to indicate that you understand them. Hopefully they aren’t talking about something too personal but that would be on them for assuming nobody understands them! LOL

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  3. ohmygodthankyouuuuuuuuuuuu!!! I’ve been trying to put this microaggession into words for a while, and feeling like I was overreacting. I’ve checked in with other Latinas, and we’re all very grateful for the article. Since it’s not US writing it, it lends us credibility when we can point white people to it. #3 and #4 were dead on for me.

    I just posted this on my facebook feed, pointing to this article:
    “For my English speaking folks, please do not speak Spanish to me, unless I’ve given you explicit consent. Your intention may be to try to make me feel welcome, but the impact is that it makes me feel Otherized, exotic, tokenized (all pretty bad for people of color).
    It completely throws off our interaction, I’m left wondering what role you expect me to play, how you think I’m supposed to respond. This happens to me ALL of the time, new acquaintances, friends, colleagues, strangers. It’s an exhausting microaggression. The hard thing about microaggressions is thta IIIIII’MMMM the one who’s punished if I bring it up. “too sensitive”. So I usually choose to take the hit and stay quiet.
    If you see someone struggling with English and you could offer them support by speaking to them in Spanish, please do. However, I am clearly bilingual, so when you speak Spanish to me it feels more like something you’re doing for yourself than for me.”

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    1. Asking for permission to speak Spanish with you is absurd. No one owns the Spanish language, or any language. We’re all free to speak whatever language we choose at any time, no matter how good or bad our skills are.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Except we aren’t all free to speak however we choose. Latinxs and other people of color are literally put into remedial classes for supposedly not speaking English well. The Spanish skills of bilingual US born Latinxs is also often denigrated.

        But that is really besides the point. The point I was making in this post is that for many US-born Latinxs non-Latinxs attempts to use Spanish can come off as at best condescending and at worse offensive. You are certainly entitled to speak Spanish whenever you want. It doesn’t change the fact that you may be alienating people in the process.

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  4. I’m a white American who grew up speaking English. If I’m in a Mexican restaurant where all of the employees primarily speak Spanish, I feel completely comfortable ordering in Spanish. I don’t think we should read too much into whites who want to speak Spanish, nor should we read too much into Latinos who want to speak English.

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    1. Being in a restaurant where people are providing you with customer service has specific interactional norms where the workers are typically going to accommodate the wishes of the customer, in this case using Spanish. Most of the world’s interactions are not in customer service settings and the majority of Latinos in the US feel quite comfortable in English. Indeed, English is the only language spoken by many US Latinxs (making your comment about not reading too much into Latinos who want to speak English especially problematic).

      You may not have to think about white people speaking Spanish but I can speak from personal experience that it is something that I (and many of my friends and colleagues) think about all of the time. But that is often how privilege works. Those at the top of a particular hierarchy don’t have to think about the issues that those at the bottom have to think about.

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      1. Many US Latinxs don’t speak Spanish as they have been in the US for many generations. Are they not included in the “we” you say welcomes everyone to use Spanish with them? Why would anybody use Spanish with them if they don’t use Italian for 4th generation Americans of Italian background?

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  5. I’m white, I’m spanish and I find your post utterly ridiculous, everybody has the right to use our language. I really find it flattering when a non spanish speaker tries to speak spanish to me to show their appreciation and willingness to engage in a friendly exchange. Try to do something productive with your life instead of getting outraged for stupid things.

    Liked by 2 people

  6. Okay, so just a note. Just because someone is “white” does not make them latino. And just because a person is “white” does not mean that he or she cannot speak Spanish, or any other language. A language is not specific to a certain people group or color of skin. So if you are learning Spanish, even if you’re “white” or not, and a Spanish speaking person is offended by the fact that you’d speak Spanish with him or her, then the problem is not you IT IS THEM. Often people can be snobby towards Americans when it comes to languages. This is unfair to them, and is a form of discrimination and prejudice. Maybe a better term in this article is American (or United States citizen to be specific) and not “white.”

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    1. Please point me to anywhere in my post where I stated that white people cannot speak Spanish. Bilingualism is a great thing and more people should learn other languages. Indeed, I say that explicitly in the last paragraph.

      Instead, I was pointing to the implicit assumptions being made by white people when they engage in Latinx in Spanish which are (1) that they speak Spanish, (2) that they are open to using Spanish and that (3) they are open to uncompensated Spanish teaching. These things may all be true, but they also may not be. And to assume that all Latinxs speak Spanish is to precisely fall into the idea that a language belongs to a specific group that you claim to be against. Ironically, you actually do this in your comment by using “Spanish speaking person” as a synonym for “Latinx,” which is the term that I used throughout the post. Why is it okay to assume Latinxs all speak Spanish?

      And in terms of your suggestion about using the term American, many Latinxs and other people of color are US citizens. To use this term to replace white is to erase our experiences. So while you may be uncomfortable with the term white it is the term that most accurately reflects the population I am referring to.

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  7. Thank you very much for this post. As a white-skinned bilingual whose profession is in K-12 language education, I think through these matters a lot and it is helpful to read them articulated here.

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  8. Thank you for this article. I’m white and I’m learning Spanish. I study independently and have a friend in Spain who helps me practice. I also go to a conversation group at a local library. Anyway, I appreciate this article and I shared it on Facebook and Twitter.

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  9. But Spanish is a European language. There’s an entire country in Europe (namely, Spain) full of white people who natively speak the language, and it’s actually the place where it originated before it was imposed by the Spanish colonizers on the colonized peoples living in the Americas before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Furthermore, Latin America itself is far from being racially homogenous. Many Latin Americans are of European descent too (i.e. they’re “white”) and speak Spanish natively. Latino isn’t a race, and it is not mutually exclusive with being white or any other race for that matter. You can be Latino AND white, black, Asian, Native American, etc.

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      1. Of course! I never said that wasn’t the case. However, that’s not the point I was making. I understand the good intent behind your post, and I can see how some white, non-Latinx Americans can be quite (if not extremely so) condescending towards both the Spanish language and the Latinx community living in the United States. I was just pointing out that the way you frame the issue disregards the fact that Spanish is in fact a white oppressor’s language, and that being of Latin American descent does not automatically make one a person of color. The way you use the term Latinx makes it sound as though it’s more like a race rather than an ethnicity and that the Latinx community is racially homogeneous and equally victimized by white supremacy. There’s white Latinos too who benefit from white privilege. Granted, you don’t see a lot of them in the United States, because for the most part they tend to be the political and economic elites of many Latin American countries, and they are so powerful and wealthy as to not need to migrate to the U.S. in search of a better life. Many of them are, in fact, the direct descendants of the Spanish colonizers that imposed their language and religion on the native inhabitants of the Americas through centuries of oppression and enslavement. Let’s not forget that it was the Spaniards who first came up with the whole construct of race to justify the atrocities they committed in the so-called New World. They were the first Europeans to label themselves as “white men,” as opposed to the people they referred to as “black” and “Indians” in order to deprive them of their humanity.

        In conclusion, to use Latinx and “white person” as mutually exclusive categories is both factually incorrect and deeply problematic, yet a very widespread tendency in mainstream American media these days.

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  10. I don’t subscribe to biological notions of race. For me race is socially constructed and racialization processes are dynamic and shifting based on changing political and economic circumstances. To rely on biological notions of race as you do to me seems factually incorrect and deeply problematic as it relies on the very same framings that were used to justify atrocities against supposed inferior races.

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    1. But I never said race was biological! On the contrary, I clearly said that the Spaniards invented “the whole construct of race to justify their atrocities.” You’re taking it the wrong way. I never meant to undermine the substance of your post. I was just pointing out a couple of flaws/inaccuracies resulting from the U.S.-centric perspective with which you’re looking at the issue.

      And yes, of course, racialization processes are dynamic and shifting, but why should U.S. dynamics and shifts (which are no older than 4 decades, when the census made up the whole ethnic category of “Latino/Hispanic”) dictate how we perceive ourselves as Latinx and our histories? Why should we let vague monolithic categories made up by clueless Anglo-Saxon Americans erase our rich and varied experiences? Why should we deny our other non-Spanish, non-European ancestries, which is exactly what Eurocentric terms like Latinx and Hispanic do? Many of us like myself have both Spanish and Native American ancestry, and I’m not willing to deny my indigenous side by accepting labels and neocolonial representations of my culture and people that ignore the complexity of our histories and identities. This is why I will not accept this new trend of treating Latinx as though it’s a race. Ignorant white Americans may do it, but I will not accept their narrative and their attempt to racialize us all over again. I know my history and my roots better than they do. Why should I let them (and their government and media) define me?

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  11. Are all Latinxs racialized equally and indistinguishably? Even the white ones? Do Spaniards and Mexican mestizos living in the U.S. experience the same level of racism/xenophobia? Sure, language is important, but so is skin color and appearance, and to disregard that sounds like color-blind racism to me.

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  12. Skin color is part of how racialization happens, certainly. But I work in classrooms in hyper-segregated low-income areas of the US where Latinxs of all skin colors are placed into remedial classrooms because of supposed linguistic deficiencies. I have also seen all of the points I make above applied to Latinxs of all skin colors. So I would argue that there are shared experiences of racialization that are not necessarily connected to skin color even as there are real differences that relate to skin color. But this is what I was trying to get at before when suggesting that I reject biological views of racism. To suggest that racism is only about skin color is to precisely do that.

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  13. Thank you for this column. I am wondering if you would consider writing about the problematic nature of the Spanish language itself. As a native speaker, it has long caused me tremendous discomfort to use gendered language. The arbitrary and, frankly, misogynistic practice of dividing objects into “male” and “female” is not only hopelessly outdated and sexist, but completely blind to the reality that gender is a spectrum. I worry that continued use of the language is insensitive (at the very least) and violent (at the extreme) towards the experiences of gender non-binary, genderqueer, and agender individuals. The use of Latinx is a great first step, but some radical changes are desperately needed. I’d love to hear your input!

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